PQQ is an important part of all living things, yet not so much is known about it. The fact that only very little quantities of PQQ can be produced is part of the reason it is still widely unknown. Only very few people can have access to it now, but that has not prevented scientist from carrying out further research on its biological effects. They are trying to figure out how it can be used as a neuroprotective agent capable of protecting memory and cognition.
Ever since it was discovered over 50 years back, different studies have been carried out and are still being done on PQQ to ascertain how it can be used to heal the brain. Recently, there was an exciting discovery that PQQ aids the formation of nerve cells.
It was also discovered that the growth of new mitochondria can be enhanced by PQQ; thus, preventing ageing. The brain sustains damage from different sources during a person’s lifespan. It is the accumulation of this damage that lead to neurodegenerative disorders, which can degenerate further into stroke if the brains blood vessels are exposed to progressive injury. The brain can also be affected such that cognitive functions suffer disruption in the micro-structure of the cells in the brain (brain trauma). It has been shown that PQQ’s ability to improve brain energy metabolism can help guard against severe brain threatening processes.
PQQ has been found to help guard the brain against these major brain-threatening processes by a variety of mechanisms related to improving brain energy metabolism.
Threats to the Brain
Brain injury, stroke and dementia are often thought of as unrelated events but they have the same basic causes that lead to brain cell damage and consequently, a decline in cognitive capacities. Most health care programs or available drugs are reactive ,they are there to try to correct the damage after it has been done. However, we stand a better chance of fighting these diseases by continuously protecting the brain prior to full onset.
. PQQ helps to protect the brain from brain injury, stroke and neurodegenerative diseases by launching an all out attack on all underlying pathological processes. Let us take a closer look at some of the causes of ageing brains and how they are impacted by PQQ, and get a better understanding of how this molecule works.
PQQ Promotes New Mitochondrial Formation
Improvement of the functioning of existing mitochondria as well as the formation of new mitochondria can be stimulated by PQQ and there are new studies to support this. The conversion of food into energy in the body to help the body carry out its functions is done by mitochondria, however, age affects the abilities of the mitochondria. Its capacity declines as we grow older. It is this decline that in certain cases gives rise to ageing, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. A way to keep these ageing diseases in check is to create new mitochondria. Several studies have shown that mitochondria numbers and functions are enhanced by PQQ.
An exciting human study has demonstrated that PQQ supplementation improves mitochondrial function. A single dose of PQQ (equalling 13 mg for an average-sized adult) led to improved measurements of urinary oxidant levels (key indicators of mitochondrial efficiency). This team of scientists also evaluated the impact of a higher daily dose of PQQ supplementation after three days (equalling about 20 mg per day for an average-sized adult) and found that measurements of inflammation (such as C-reactive protein and interleukin-6) were decreased.
PQQ Promotes Nerve Cell Growth
Another recent study found that PQQ has the capacity to stimulate healing processes which lead to the creation of completely new nerve cells. It is nerve cells that are responsible for the regulation of many functions within the nervous system to the organs through to the transmission of messages.
The ability of PQQ to stimulate nerve growth factor (NGF) in brain cells is what gives it the ability to support the formation of nerve cells. The NGF is an important protein molecule which is crucial for the formation and maintenance of the cells responsible for learning, cognition and memory.
Nerve plasticity is the process by which nerve cells communicate with each other by creating a connection. NGF is crucial for this plasticity. These processes are what allow humans to learn and memorise. Cognition and memory of both humans and animals have been proven to gain a lot from PQQ. More studies have also shown that PQQ is responsible for the repair of injured nerves. In a recent study PQQ was injected into a part of the body that nerves had been severed. New nerve tissue formed and filled the gap.
PQQ Protects against Oxidative Damage
It has been discovered that PQQ has the ability to protect nerve stem and progenitor cell from oxidative damage. This enhances the chances of survival for these cells .An experiment on rats showed that the older rats were able to boost learn capability with PQQ. The production of NGF and the decrease in oxidative damage were the 2 factors responsible for the improved learning and memory capacity in the older rats.
PQQ Reduces Harmful Neuroinflammation
The ageing process is quickened by neuroinflammation which has a direct impact on the brain cells. Low grade inflammation of the brain is frequently observed in neurodegenerative diseases. They can also be observed when there is traumatic brain injury or a stroke. Oxidative damage, infection and high glucose levels are some of the other causes of neuroinflammation. Harmful neuroinflamation has been greatly reduced by PQQ supplementation and one of the ways it has achieved this is by inhibiting the formation pro-inflammatory signalling chemicals.
PQQ Prevents Glucose-Induced Brain Damage
Brain cell damage can come about from the severe exposure of brain cells to heightened sugar levels as a consequence of diabetes. Typically there is a 60% greater chance that a person with diabetes will develop dementia. Also, neurological damage can be prompted by the spikes in insulin levels associated with diabetes. This is why some scientists think of Alzheimer’s disease as a “type 3 diabetes”. The damage which the brain is exposed to from elevated sugar levels can be minimised by PQQ. A lab experiment was carried out to ascertain the effect of high blood sugar levels on brain cells and the result was an increased death rate of the cells that were exposed to high sugar concentrations. PQQ was then added to the equation and the results changed. Cell death rates were suppressed, glucose damage was reduced and the production of dangerous oxidants was reduced. Similar results were observed in animals. Some diabetic mice were injected with a dose equivalent to 100 mg for humans, the brain cell damage significantly reduced. 20 mg is the recommended daily dose of PQQ supplementation for humans.